The Road to Obtaining a Service Dog


A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed:

 Kendall Winship

Curled up at my feet, Rally looks up straight into my gaze and whines low and persistently in his throat.  My professor and classmates in my history class don’t even notice the disturbance, but I immediately reach for my medication, swallowing my two pills with a chug of water and glancing back down at Rally, whose tiny stub of a tail wags furiously as he lays his head back down, content. The danger has passed.

As a sufferer of chronic hemiplegic migraines, I live my life acutely attuned to my dog’s every movement. Trained as a medical alert service dog, his job is to warn me whenever a migraine attack is impending, and he takes his work very seriously.  He is with me every moment of every day, in shopping malls, cafes and classrooms, and even in the most chaotic of settings, remains focused on his work. Without his daily assistance, I would be unable to drive a car, eat at a restaurant or go to the movie theaters without fearing an attack.

Rally is one of the few migraine alert service dogs in the nation. These dogs are highly valued because the ability to tell when a migraine is approaching is an innate talent; it can’t be taught. Similar to diabetic alert dogs that can smell when their handler has low blood sugar, migraine alert dogs can hone in on the scent of serotonin, a chemical that skyrockets when the body is about to have a migraine. By alerting to the danger long before their handlers might feel any symptoms, these dogs can warn them to take preventative medication. When Rally looks up at me and whines, I know I have about two hours before the migraine will strike, and if I can take my medication early enough, I might be able to avoid the stroke-like symptoms and incapacitating pain. For the last year I had dealt with my migraines through drugs and various forms of therapy, but when I heard about migraine alert service animals, I immediately began my research.

In the United States there are many different jobs that service dogs can perform, such as mobility assistance, medical alert, psychiatric help and guiding the blind. They work with soldiers stricken with PTSD and autistic and mentally challenged individuals. They can alert someone with hearing loss that the doorbell is ringing, or warn that a food contains a certain ingredient that will cause an allergic reaction. However, there is no single exam or certification for an animal to become a service dog. This is due, in part, to the huge cost that it would take to form a national standardized training and testing curriculum, and in part because everyone’s disabilities vary in nature. Each service dog is unique, custom trained to fit his handler’s exact needs, and as such, it is necessary that each dog be individually trained.

To qualify needing a service animal, you must have a disability that severely limits your daily activities. A broken leg or a temporary disability does not count.  A doctor’s note affirming that you require a service animal is also recommended for housing departments and employers.

Once you decide that the help of a service animal will significantly negate your disability, you must choose how to go about getting one. There are two ways to receive a service dog; the first is via a non-profit organization such as 4 Paws for Ability or Custom Canines. Because the cost of training a service dog is so high, most individuals apply to one of these charitable programs to receive a fully trained service dog.  This can cost anywhere from $5,000 to $35,000, and depends on the amount of fundraising and financial support you can raise. Another alternative to obtaining a dog from an organization is to train one yourself. This is the path that I chose because I couldn’t find a pre-established program to train migraine alert service dogs, and I wanted to be heavily involved in my dog’s training because animals that are more tightly bonded with their handlers have a better chance of alerting to their migraines.

Now that I had decided to train my own service dog, I needed a perfect candidate. In general, service dogs in training must be at least two years of age, be neutered or spayed, healthy and vaccinated and be completely non-aggressive towards humans and other animals.  While this narrowed down my choices from every single dog in the country, I was even further restricted because I was searching for a dog that was born with the ability to sense migraines.

I tried not to be discouraged by the high likelihood that finding my perfect candidate would be akin to finding a needle in a nation-wide haystack, and began to call rescues and shelter organizations. Many times I thought I found a potential dog, only to be deterred; too young, too large, aggressive towards children, too old, the list continued.  Fortunately, my search became noticed, and a few weeks before Christmas the Northern California German Shorthaired Rescue contacted me. “I think we’ve found a dog that will fulfill your requirements,” the woman’s voice on the phone said, and my heart soared.  Within a few months, after fostering and carefully considering my candidate, I adopted Rally.  I was ready to begin the training!

I knew that training Rally to become a service dog would require a monumental amount of work, and I immediately enlisted the aid of two professional trainers. Together we worked extensively with Rally to teach him how to behave in public. The average service animal is taught over fifty commands, most in an effort to render them inconspicuous to the public eye. They don’t bark at passing pets, chase cars or urinate on the carpet. They are attentive to their handler and oblivious to food, other people or distractions. A service dog is taught to heel on and off leash and to lie down beneath a restaurant table or a classroom desk for hours at a time. They can turn off and on lights, push doors open, pull wheelchairs and retrieve specific objects, but the most important command that a service dog can learn is to remain calm; I’ve taken Rally to the shopping malls, up and down elevators, on trains and busses and air planes, and I am continually thankful when his training pays off and he remains focused. Even when fire alarms go off or a car backfires nearby, he knows to stay right at my side.

The decision to get a service dog was very difficult, as it was admitting to both the world and myself that I needed help with my disability, but it was the best choice I ever made.  Thanks to Rally and the unwavering support of my family and friends, I am now able to navigate the world without fear of a migraine attack, and that peace of mind is invaluable. Cheryl, who has a mobility-assist service dog, put it best when she says, “Bentley isn’t just a service dog—he’s my best friend.  He works hard so that I can live my life to the fullest, and that is a gift that I’ll never be able to fully repay. We are a team.”


31 thoughts on “The Road to Obtaining a Service Dog

  1. Oh my gosh! This really resonated with me. I am also a young woman who has hemiplegic migraines! Although I’ve had migraines for almost ten years they have slowly grown worse and more are hemiplegic than not. I pass out, have weakness or paralysis in my limbs, speech impairments, visual disturbances, heart palpitations, and sometimes confusion. I receive weekly IV treatments and have a specialist, but nothing has really worked in preventing the attacks. When I saw your post I felt like a window was opened. I’ve been looking into a migraine service dog, one specifically for hemiplegic migraines, but I can’t find any information. Would it be possible to email you and ask questions? I’m in Canada but I’m just starting the process of maybe getting a service dog. I’d love to pick your brain on the process and what kinds of things Rally does for you.

    • Hi Jessica,

      Our symptoms are very similar! Aren’t we just so fortunate haha?

      Unfortunately, there’s very little information to be found online about migraine alert service dogs. The concept is still fairly new, and trainers are still figuring out how to train these amazing dogs.

      My email is I’d love to get in touch with you! Feel free to email me with any questions you might have, and I’ll do my best to help!

      • Hey Jessica,
        Just want to make check if you’ve received any emails from me. My email account has been acting up and I wanted to touch basis just in case you weren’t getting any! (:

      • Kristi

        I myself have enjoyed chronic daily migraines for the last two years and 9 months. On my last visit to Chicago’s Diamond Headache Clinic my roommate had hemiplegic migraines. She had one while I was visiting in her side of the room. Oh my gosh I knew what it was but still scary for you ladies. Anyway I have a two-year old lab and have been thinking more and more about training her to be a service dog for me. How do you go about training a dog for when you have a migraine? Dude to my treatment at Diamond they are no longer daily or as intense but if my dog could alert me it’s coming I would be steps ahead of the game. Please tell them know what I should do to move forward. Thanks migraine sister. 🙂

      • Hi!
        Yeah, migraines aren’t much fun, especially when they’re accompanied by stroke symptoms! You are very brave to face daily chronic migraines though! I don’t know what I would do if mine occurred every day!
        Dogs that can be trained to alert to migraines must first have the natural ability to alert. We then take that natural ability and shape it into a behavior that we want (nudging, barking etc.) Does your dog become anxious or excited right before you have a migraine? If so, that might be an indicator. Observe your dog closely and see if there is any change of behavior. If so, then it’s a matter of capturing or encouraging the behavior.
        If your dog can’t sense your migraines, then there are a bunch of other things you can teach him that will be useful! First however, determine if he is a suitable candidate; is he calm in all situations? Is he focused? Is he completely non-aggressive? How old is he? What commands does he currently know? Is he well socialized? It takes a certain type of dog to succeed at working; making certain that your dog is a great candidate will not only make your life easier, but his as well!
        If you know for certain that your dog will make a great service dog, you-or a professional trainer- can then train him to turn off the lights, brace and help you walk (if he’s big enough) bring you your medication and other tasks to help you negate the actual effects of the migraine.
        If your dog is not a suitable candidate and you are committed to the idea of a service dog, then you can look into getting another dog specifically to train or purchasing one through a reputable academy. Either rout required training, time and money.
        Hope this helps! If you need any more information or would like me to expand or clarify on anything, let me know! (: I’m happy to help a fellow migraine sufferer! (:

    • Hello! I know this was a few months ago, but I thought I’d jump in too. I also suffer from the same sort of symptoms with my chronic migraines, and am just starting my look into getting a service dog, particularly as I’ll be going to university soon. I stole your email off of your reply to Jessica’s comment, and sent you one. I didn’t know whether or not you’ve seen it, because I haven’t seen you post on this blog since May.

      I felt the same way Jessica, something clicked. I’ve read weird tangenting forum posts, and a few articles, but nothing like this blog. Thank you for posting this, and I was wondering if you’d be willing to talk about it with me too?

      Thank you!

      • Hi!
        I’m so glad that you found my post and wrote in! Life got hectic as it tends to, and I barely had any time to write, but now that summer is almost over I promise I’ll have more time to write about the daily adventures of owning a migraine alert service dog! (: I did receive your email Amberley and hope I can share some insights! I’d be delighted to talk and try to help you as much as I can! I know the resources on training and obtaining a migraine alert service dog are scattered at best, so feel free to ask any questions that cross your mind.

    • Hi Jessica. I am replying to your post as you are in Canada, Yay – and so am I. My son, Mark who is 32 yrs of age has Hemiplegic Migraines since he was 8 yrs. old. He has had so many attacks which for him result in Seizures. This is what occurred on Sept. 20th, 2015. He is being released sometime this month and he is so afraid o get back out there. I searched this to see if there were migraine alert dogs, as if he can get the migraine under control, he will not have a seizure. Such a terrible illness to have as you well know. I am not able to take care of him and of course he would like to be on his own and has many times, yet ends up in hospital. We live in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Do you know where I can find out how to go about this procedure? I thank you so very much and do hope you are doing well. Cynthia Wall

  2. Lynn

    My daughter is 17 years old and has Hemiplegic Migraines. Her last really bad attack was Aug 5 2013 were she was in a coma for 5 days. Then her next attack was this past June two attacks in two days then nothing to current. None were ever as bad as the one last year but it was somewhat different, she could not breath and almost aspirated on her on saliva because she was foaming at the mouth and could not roll over. Talia’s attacks travel up the right side of her body into her neck / face then down the left side of her body. She has headaches all the time but attacked once or twice a year. Like every 6 months usually. She is going off to college and I am so worried about her on her own over an hour from anyone who knows what to do to help her. I would love for her to have a service dog to help alert her so she could call 911 before she went out.

    • Hi,
      First, I am deeply touched by your daughter’s story and your family’s courage in the face of her disability. It sounds like your daughter would benefit from having a migraine alert service dog, not only because of the warning that the dog might be able to provide, but also because of the companionship and love and comfort that service dogs inevitably bring.
      Have you expressed your concerns with your daughter’s doctor? Is her college aware of her condition, and are there steps in place in case of an emergency? Has she emailed her professors and warned them that she might suffer an attack in class, and informed them what to do should one occur?
      If you have any questions about the process of finding and training a migraine alert service dog for your daughter, I would be more than happy to try and help. My email is, should you wish to contact me directly. I wish your daughter and your family the best of luck and health.

  3. Dawn Landrum

    I was glad to find out that I was not the only one out there that has hemiplegic migraines. My migraines have left me legally blind. I have been researching about service dogs for someone with hemiplegic migraines. I was really getting discouraged until I found your page. I live in South Carolina

    • Hi! I’m happy to hear that you found my page! Migraine alert service dogs can do wonders in improving self-independence. Feel free to find me on FB or email if you have any questions!

  4. Rae

    Hi, I have been doing research on migraine alert dogs for about 6 months now. There is barely any information out there and it feels a bit daunting to me. I have been suffering chronic migraines for 10 years. Preventative Medication has not been effective and I almost never catch my migraines in time to stop them in their tracks. My migraines are so often and bad I am hospitalized at least once a month. I’ve had them last over a week. I’ve done many lifestyle and diet changes but still they occur. Some even cause my vision to black out and extreme cases of vertigo. The main reason I am writing this is because I have wanted a dog for years and I am alone most of the time while my fiancé is at work. We did a lot of research into dogs and finally found a puppy that suited us. We got him at 4 months and he is now 11 months. I hired a trainer and we worked together right away. He is very good with commands and picked them up fast with consistency. I am very hands on with his training. Right now he knows basic commands well and I was wondering if you had pointers for the direction in which I should head with his training. I should also say that I notice a difference in his behavior before a migraine hits and that has made me hopeful that he could be a migraine alert dog. Thank you for sharing your story.

    • Hi! So sorry to hear about your migraines. They make life difficult, but your pup sounds like he is an amazing dog who has real potential to make a difference in your life! If you are looking to make him into a medical alert service dog, be aware that the process can take anywhere from a year to two, depending on the dog and the time spent training. There are a few steps I recommend you start on (:
      First, contact your doctor and get him/her to write you a “prescription”, stating that you need a service dog to predict/respond to your migraines. Mine basically reads, “_____ recommends that Kendall Winship needs a service dog to predict migraine attacks and perform trained tasks to negate the symptoms” etc. Make copies and keep one on you. Legally you can’t be asked to show this medical information, but I always feel more comfortable with physical proof on me that Watson was recommended to me by a medical professional, and if you’re more relaxed, then your pup will be too.
      Then, work on advanced obedience with your pup and trainer. Extended stays, backing up, tucking under chairs, heeling on a hands-free leash, loading into the car, etc. Think Good Canine Citizen test requirements. In fact I recommend that you take the Good Canine Citizen tests (1, 2, and the urban one). In the meantime, brainstorm on what you can teach your pup that will make your migraines easier. For example, if you notice the difference in his behavior before you have a migraine, you could capture that behavior and shape it into a paw on your foot or a bow, that way you don’t always have to study his body behavior. As far as response goes, he could learn to turn off lights, fetch you your medication, call 911 on a special phone, do DPT to relieve pain and even find someone if you need help. I plan on teaching Watson some light counterbalance when he turns 2, as my vision and balance can get wonky, so that’s also something to consider when your pup gets older. YouTube videos of service dogs working are a great inspiration, and can help you and your trainer in referencing for teaching these tasks.
      Your next step, once your pup has mastered advanced obedience and at least one task, would be to start teaching him public access skills such as riding elevators and escalators, ignoring people and other dogs, walking on all sorts of slippery surfaces etc. I started with places like outdoor malls, hardware stores and anywhere where dogs are generally allowed. Check your state laws to see if service dogs in training are permitted access equal to fully trained service dogs. I would also invest in a good vest to mark your pup as a service dog in training. You aren’t required to do so legally, but again, it’ll cut down on public access issues and the curious public. I’d avoid places like Amazon or Ebay, and instead look at Wiredog or Petjoy. They are a bit more expensive but have great quality vests and you can get additional patches on Amazon to sew on that say “medical alert service dog” or “do not pet”, because believe me, dogs are cute and the public apparently needs to pet.
      Additionally, I’d join Facebook groups like Service Dogs Uncensored, Service Dogs for Invisible Disabilities and Owner Trained Service Dogs. There are many skilled trainers and handlers on those pages who can help you with any access issues or training problems that you might encounter, and it’s great to see how other teams work.
      Finally, (sorry this is a lot of information) I’d become very familiar with the laws. Know them like the back of your hand. It’ll always be scary and embarrassing to be challenged, but you’ll feel better if you know what you’re talking about and how to react. Decide if you are going to permit the public to interact with your dog from day one. I personally only permit Watson to accept attention from the public if he isn’t wearing his vest; when it’s on, it’s time to work and I expect him to remain focused on me. But it’s a personal preference and I know some handlers who are more laid back. Also, I’d see if you could possibly accompany another team on an outing. I wish I had done that before I got my first service dog. It wouldn’t have been quite such a shock to see how rude and invasive people can be. If you decide to work your pup as a service dog, then you will never, ever be anonymous again. Seriously, a 10 minute grocery run will become a half hour trip.
      In the end, I think it’s worth it. It’s a lot of work to transform a dog into a service team, but once you do, the independence and peace of mind is invaluable. Let me know if you have any further questions or need clarification on anything, and feel free to friend me on Facebook! Keep me updated on your progress! (:

  5. So glad I came across your page! I too suffer from chronic HM and have decided to start the process of getting a migraine medical alert dog. My doctor and I found a place that is willing to work closely with me to find the perfect match of a dog. Excited to read through your blog along my journey!💚💜

    • Alexandra

      Hadley – I also suffer from chronic migraines and am interested in starting this process. My doctor is more ‘hands off’ in the process and is letting me run it on my own.. which is proving quite difficult. Would you possibly be willing to share this resource with me? No problem at all if not! If so, my email is

    • Alexandra

      Hi – my doctor and I have recently agreed that a migraine medical alert dog would be a great next step in helping manage my chronic migraines, but he doesn’t have any clue where to look for dogs. Would you be willing to share this resource with me? No problem at all if not! If so, my email is

  6. So glad I came across your blog! I too have chronic HM and recently have decided to start the process of getting a migraine alert dog. My doctor and I have found a reputable company willing to work with me on finding the perfect dog and training exactly to my needs. Looking forward to reading your blog along my way💜💚

  7. MM

    I am so glad to see a light in my dark view. Ty for sharing everyone! I travel for work, starting a new facility every 3 months but can’t ever get good recommendations bc I always miss 5 or more days each assignment. I am taking pain meds all the time and am tired of it. I am gonna start trying to find the right dog immediately! I love my work, but have been encouraged multiple times to go out on disability. I just can’t imagine not helping people!

  8. Alexandra

    Hi Kendall, I’d love to speak with you about migraine alert and response dogs! I’m a 22 year old chronic migraine sufferer and your blog has been incredibly useful and provided me so much hope. I sent an email to your account per the other comments but I wanted to make sure that’s the best way to get in touch with you!

    Thank you so much for all your help!


    • Hi Alexandra,
      So sorry it has taken me months to respond! I’ve been traveling and away from the world of technology.
      Give me a call anytime at (925) 8492167. I’m happy to help anyway I can and look forwards to speaking with you.

  9. Jinna

    This made me cry while reading. my self I am a suffer I have been for 5 years now an 2 years ago I moved up north an became very depressed because my migraine became wrose then they ever had. My husband suggest that I get a dog to cheer me up so I get online an found a Chihuahua she was so cute so I go to meet the people that was selling her she jump out of there arms in to mine. I toke her home we loved on her like most new family would but about a week after getting her my migraine went from one ever other week to one every day for a month an she was not acting right she would jump on my chest an lay down an I push her off an she did this for a month befor it hit me what she was doing she was warning me of a migraine…I have had her for 2 years now an she has not failed me yet on warning me of a up coming migraine now I did not tain her it just come naturally to her just like most dose an she is my service dog an she goes where I I do not take medication any more I take steps to help mine ice pack an other step…I felt like I was in a coma state all the time with the migraine meds they gave me…but now I get hours of heads up time with my migraine alert dog…thanks for your story an for letting me share mine

    • Hi Jinna, wow! What a great story! I love happy endings! Your dog sounds like she is a blessing! Thank you for sharing! I am very happy for you both!

  10. I live in Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. My son Mark is 32 yrs. old and has Hemiplegic Migraines which if left too long he has seizures. So his illness is called Hemiplegic Migraine with Seizure disorder. If we could find a wonderful Alert Dog, this would help so very much as he has suffered with this since 8 yrs. of age. He is about to come out of the Hospital once again and as his Mother am desperate for an answer, and he is as well. Would you be able to tell me where I can start this process? I am so thankful for this so all the best and I look forward to hearing from you.

    • Hi Cynthia,
      So sorry! I have been traveling and out of cell service/wifi and just got back!
      The first place to start would be brainstorming about the breed of dog you and your son would like to have trained. I like Goldens. They are just so easy to work with and have a high success rate, besides just being great overall working dogs. However you might need a smaller breed, or one that doesn’t shed as much. You might also want to brainstorm on what the dog needs to do aside from alert to migraines; response tasks are a blessing. Opening doors, guide work, balance work, fetching me my meds or water, turning on and off the lights and picking up anything I drop make Watson invaluable to me during a migraine.
      The next step would be to find a dog. Unfortunately there is no concrete way to identify a dog that can alert to migraines. I’d start that by finding a pup whose parents are either working dogs or who have a history of alerting. It usually travels through the family line but even then maybe one of the entire litter might be able to smell migraines. You could try finding an adult dog and hoping for the best; that worked with my first service dog Rally, but it’s rare and I was very lucky.
      Feel free to give me a call at (925) 849 2167 in the evenings. I might be able to send out some calls to Watson’s breeder or help you brainstorm so that Mark can stop having to go to the hospital and you can both find some answers. (:

  11. Elizabeth LaPrade

    I am a late responder but very happy to have found your blog. My 20 year old daughter is a migraine sufferer who hits the floor and doesn’t come to for 24 to 48 hours. She has anywhere from 3-7 minutes before she blacks out. She has had to take a medical leave from her college because, even though she is registered through the disability office, still struggles to make her professors understand that she can’t email them ahead of time to let them know she will be having a migraine during their next class. Her boss at work also tells her to stay home if she knows she is getting a migraine. She obviously needs an alert dog.

    I happen to work for a border collie breeder who breeds high quality show dogs. She has agreed to give us first pick of her next litter of pups to train a migraine alert dog. So now comes all the googling and research … so confusing! I’m trying to find out who can train this dog and how to handle it in the puppy stage. Most places don’t train migraine alert dogs, and the ones that do don’t respond to my reaching out because they are overwhelmed with responses. I learned a lot from your earlier response about how to train your dog, but I was wondering why you wanted a dog that was 2? I would love it if you would dedicate a few of your blogs on how to find a migraine alert dog, what the process is, and contacts that would help us navigate through the mounds of research. I can send you a pm, but really I think a lot of people want answers to these questions, not just me. Thanks so much for your blog!



    • Hi Elizabeth! Your daughter must be very brave and you must be a very strong person to support and guide her through such scary migraines! I agree that a migraine alert dog would be invaluable to her and give her a great degree of independence back.
      Unfortunately, no one really knows how to identify a dog with the ability to alert for certain. We can always give our best guess through choosing a “predisposed” breed, running evaluations on their temperament and work aptitude etc. No one really knows how migraine alert dogs can sense a migraine, but we think it has something to do with scent, so swabbing your daughter’s mouth before and during a migraine and presenting these samples to a dog for a reaction is probably your best bet. Finding parents of the dog who are migraine alert or seizure alert dogs is also a great start.
      Ideally, I would have loved a 2 year old because they are through the tedious and trying puppy/adolescent stage. Also, I was attending college at the same time as I was training, and couldn’t expect an energetic puppy to sit through 4 hour classes. I did look into border collies and I will say from my experience they are very, very energetic. Excellent working drive, but have a tendency to herd children, can be bored/destructive and might be too high energy, especially if your daughter takes a couple of days to recover and the dog needs to be exercised vigorously and worked etc. That’s why I chose a golden retriever, because at 4 months old Watson had a low enough energy level and a high trainable level which allowed me to teach him down/stays for extended periods of time without any stress to the dog or to myself. But he is pretty big (about 75 lbs at the moment) so your daughter might be looking for a smaller dog.
      A side note; a dog can do much more for your daughter than just alert. You can teach response commands, such as asking the dog to fetch her meds, water, a blanket, turn on and off lights, guide her to safety, go fetch help etc. Just a thought (:
      I would be wary of any trainers who claim they can take your dog and teach it to alert to a migraine. You can teach a response (actively helping to cope with the symptoms) but you can’t teach a dog how to smell a migraine. Either they have the inherent ability to alert or they don’t. I have been exceedingly fortunate in that both of my service dogs have been born with the ability to alert. It was vastly easier to teach Watson that I wanted him to let me know when he smelled an oncomming seizure because I had Rally, who could alert first and show Watson I wanted that particular smell to invoke an alert (paw on knee, bow etc.) But just beware of training programs that claim to teach your dog the actual alert.
      I know how frustrating it can be to navigate the mountain of research, propaganda and scams. Unfortunately I don’t have a clear list of resources; most of what I know I’ve had to learn the hard way and sadly we don’t have a standard, concrete way to know if a dog can alert to migraines other than take our best guess, choose the best dog and bond to that animal. I’ll brainstorm and write up a blog, but in the meantime feel free to give me a call at (925) 849-2167 anytime in the evening. I’d be more than happy to help anyway that I can.

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